Also at the advise of my tutor I have followed the following tutorials. These notes are in order to help me with my studies. I have sometimes quoted and sometimes abbreviated the text within the tutorial in order to remember its contents.
Note if there is noise in the image then you must be very careful with sharpening not to increase the noise so apply sharpening only to edges. Noise is particularly noticeable in the darker areas of the image. First reduce noise and then proceed to sharpen.
Selective sharpening using masks to apply only to part of an image. Creating a mask layer new layer in CS4. You can apply more aggressive sharpening to an image on duplicate layer and then adjust the opacity or only allow opacity in certain areas and other areas can be painted black or white. Or as with Kelby change the blending mode to luminosity so it is only applied to certain areas of the image. Another option is to apply softening to the parts of the image you do not need sharp which makes the rest of the image appear sharp.
Sharpening for web and output sharpening. It is impossible to tell from the print on a screen what it will look like when printed often what is effective for printing will not look good on your computer.
The type of paper, printer are influences. For example matt paper requires more agressive sharpening then on glossy. I have noticed this as here in thailand glossy only exists on small prints however I printed small on glossy and then large on matt and the matt looks much less sharp almost with more noise.
So an estimated calculation is the viewing distance typically the length of the diagonal of the image for example 25cm and the ppi for example 300 means the sharpening radius should be around 1.2 pixels. Or sometimes its just trial and error. Perhaps at this point for myself as I do not print. I should start to always use the same printing company so as to compare this.
The key is that it should be small enough to be at the limit to what our eye can resolve but large enough to visible improve sharpness.
Noted in this tutorial that for the web if the image is downsized to 50% then it is difficult to see the halos of sharpening.
Sharpening is irreversible so save copies and work on that. RAW files react much better than JPEGS. I have been working on my JPEGs so I should start using my RAW files.
Blurring due to movement of subject may require advances sharpening techniques.
There is more information within this tutorial however for more selective sharpening and effects of different lenses I am going to hold off and return at a later date when I have digested all of the above.
Light sharpening Halos are more objectionable than dark ones.
How the unsharp mask works. It creates a blurred copy of the original and places it over the original, it is then subtracted from the original to detect the presence of edges. Contrast is then increased along the edges leaving a sharper image. The unsharp mask is actually using a trick of how our own brain perceives what are called Mach Bands. Again be careful not to over do it.
Confusion circle not influenced by focal length greatly. Longer focal lengths appear to have a shallower depth of field as they enlarge the background compared to the foreground.
Note how a wide angle lens provides a more gradually fading DoF behind the focal plane than in front, which is important for traditional landscape photographs.
On the other hand, when standing in the same place and focusing on a subject at the same distance, a longer focal length lens will have a shallower depth of field (even though the pictures will frame the subject entirely differently). This is more representative of everyday use, but is an effect due to higher magnification, not focal length.
Why not just use the smallest aperture (largest number) to achieve the best possible depth of field? Other than the fact that this may require prohibitively long shutter speeds without a camera tripod, too small of an aperture softens the image by creating a larger circle of confusion (or “Airy disk”) due to an effect called diffraction — even within the plane of focus. Diffraction quickly becomes more of a limiting factor than depth of field as the aperture gets smaller. Despite their extreme depth of field, this is also why “pinhole cameras” have limited resolution. So to sum it up a large aperture creates a larger circle of confusion.
For macro photography (high magnification), the depth of field is actually influenced by another factor: pupil magnification. This is equal to one for lenses which are internally symmetric, although for wide angle and telephoto lenses this is greater or less than one, respectively. A greater depth of field is achieved (than would be ordinarily calculated) for a pupil magnification less than one, whereas the pupil magnification does not change the calculation when it is equal to one. The problem is that the pupil magnification is usually not provided by lens manufacturers, and one can only roughly estimate it visually.
See also reflections after assignment four regarding sharpness of image.
See also Hyperfocal Distance.
The objective of this exercise was to take photographs at night in order to explore the variety of lighting effects and colour in artificial light.
The aim was to include a floodlit building, a brightly lit store, a large interior such as a shopping centre and a raised view along a road at night.
The follow are a selection of photographs I have taken at night and in artificial light.
These night time shots of traffic. I first set up my tripod on a height over a busy road. On a tripod and with a high ISO. I wanted to make as long a shot as possible I started with 30 seconds however the brightness of the shops became almost like daylight and the light of the traffic was lost. If I did not give as long a time the trails became very faint and we saw no shops. Eventually I added my big stopper filter and this allowed me a much longer shutter speed of 5 minutes and therefore allowed me to see the shops and the setting of this busy town and also the trails of the bikes and cars leaving also trail where they turned off. If I was shooting a busy road had I been shooting on a street with no shop lights it could be shot in a shorter time and with out the filter to great effect. I also noted that the long time given with the high ISO gave a very grainy effect this can be used to artistic effect and at times I would want to avoid it. I could reduce the ISO and increase the shutter speed greatly.
I have also taken the following two photographs outside brightly lit shops. One is a hello kitty store and the light appeared more tungsten than daylight or Fluorescent and this can be seen in its orange cast. The other outside a tattoo shop this is taken with daylight set on the camera, a nice white colour can be seen within the shop.
With the shopping centre I have taken one with daylight and one with fluorescent. I could not find a satisfactory shot. The light as expected is not a complete spectrum and is not attractive.
The above two images are taken of a temple with flood lighting just out of view. It is at sunset and I like the way the sky almost dark allows you to see the building well while the light inside is inviting.
I have definitely learned to see the difference and from now on will be more aware of it when taking night shots which I have generally avoided up until now as they have never been very attractive.
So while putting my house up for sale. I decided to take some photos and incorporate what I am learning about light. So I have used the Technique of when the light is about the same inside and out while photographing the Exterior of the house. This to me creates a sense of warmth inside a desire to go in. It also gives a more flattering light on the exterior as at the moment there is a part of the house that the sun never illuminates in the garden and so it would be difficult to photograph in the Sunlight as the wall appears dark without merging images.
For the interior I mostly have white lights except in my living room. So I have opted to use the light from the window and where I feel a white wall or the couch or Piano needed some extra light I have used my light box. That way I do not need to worry about different colour balances.
In my bathroom and Kitchen the light appears more greenish so I guess it is more Fluorescent and not quite as attractive. The bathroom was too small to use a light box without it appearing in the mirror or image. In this case I have slightly adjusted in Photoshop.
I have completed all images in about three hours.
- Exercise shadow and fill http://wp.me/p2dUJz-oC
- Portrait at home angelo http://wp.me/p2dUJz-ok
- Assignments http://wp.me/P2dUJz-aA
- Light art of photography working towards assignment 4 http://wp.me/p2dUJz-dO
- Direct and Diffuse reflection Experiment on a shiny subject. http://wp.me/p2dUJz-it
- Light science and magic book http://wp.me/p2dUJz-g4
Exercise 1 – Measuring Exposure
The aim of this exercises was to take 4-6 photos which are deliberately under or over exposed. Then to take a series of images and to bracket their exposure to see if there were any surprises. In certain images if they were more successful by being exposed more or less than I would have originally thought.
These images were taken over two days in Miami. The subject which I hoped to portray was Miami life which is a very urban city landscape however with a very outdoor lifestyle. It is fast passed and relaxed at the same time. Here are the Images.
- Deliberately under and over exposed.
Image one on the ferry in NYC. I wanted to create a frame that reminded us a little of a role of film at the edges. The underexposure was necessary in order to be able to see the statue of liberty and the view from the ferry correctly. I liked the framing and was trying to do something different with a subject that is photographed every day.
Image two a coloured building by underexposing I have increased the saturation and feel the colours are brought more to our attention. With a correctly exposed image the colours could have been washed out.
Image three. Rickys hot dog. I feel like the best way to describe Miami is colourful and this photograph of a street vendor brings it home to me. The bright colour of the cooler box with Rickys name on it the mustard the deep saturation caused by slightly underexposing adds to the image. It was midday sun almost and so the image could have been washed out otherwise.
Image four, under exposed Tree. It was the shape of this image I wanted to bring attention to so by underexposing the ocean becomes almost a white. It is nor a perfect image however I feel the type of pastel look reminds me almost of a painting.
Image 5 The image is a view from a cafe in New York it was the poster face smiling in at me which caught my attention I wanted to use the smoke to emphasise the shape or pose of the two people walking in the image. In order to catch the smoke effectively I needed to underexpose this also works to emphasise the shape of the two figures by not seeing their features we see how they are walking the hunched forward and with intent. They are not taking in their environment but seem to be on a mission to get where they are going. Strangers passing on the street.
Image 6 the surfer. By overexposing we emphasise the level of sun. Implying surfing on a beach in good weather.
Bracketing images to see if the results of under or over exposing produce better results to what I expected.
Miami, USA. I liked this image underexposed as it brings out the white sand and seems to contrast more with the background motorway and buildings this way. I could also see great use of this if I was to convert it to a black and white image. The correct exposure is an adequate image and the underexposed brings out the clouds and the blue of the ocean.
Man fishing in ocean. With shot when underexposed there was little detail of anything the ocean was washed out and lacking in details everywhere else. I like this shot underexposed best it brings out the green and blue more efficiently.
Man reading on ferry. I like this image with its correct exposure. I note that when it is underexposed the different light coming in through the window contrasts better and this can make certain images more attractive however here I prefered to keep smaller details. When overexposed the detail of the map that this gentleman is reading is is clearest however part of the images start to get washed out. When underexposed I like that I can see the reflections in the window.
Seats facing traffic. This unusual position of the seats on the side of a main road caught my attention. I prefer the shot when underexposed as I can see more detail of the peeling paint also I feel it gives more definition to the shape of the benches.
I prefer underexposed with the shadows of this man walking with his fishing net. I like that by underexposing it shows the colours better. I do however like the overexposed effect on the net. It almost shows its transparency as a net should and for a different image could be interesting.
Seats on a beach. I expected this shot to be better with the initial exposure however by underexposing I liked how it enhanced the shadows which made the image more interesting
This image proved to be the most interesting. The people on the ferry and the shape of the windows made an interested everyday shot and this appealed to me. By underexposing I could see more detail of their outlines and activities however by overexposing I could see out the window with the empire estate in the background. Ideally I would like to have both in the shot. This could be done I guess either by using the silhouette of someone standing and so contrasting the exterior light outside or by merging two images.
Exercise 2 Higher and Lower Sensitivity.
With the higher and lower sensitivity I notice that the higher ISO shows more graininess when enlarged. I also note that the areas of less detail and that are neither bright nor dark show less this graininess.
Exercise 3 /4Judging Colour Temperature part one and two.
Image of person taken in the midday sun then around midday in the shade and finally with the sun near the horizon all three images using the daylight setting on my camera.
These three images shot at different times. The midday sun with the person in the sun and the camera at daylight setting has a neutral colour however also creates extremes of hard shadows and is not flattering for a person. The image taken in the shade at midday is slightly cooler however I can see more detail in the image. The third image creates a warmth on the skin tone which I like, the light is evenly spread without shadow.
Exercise 4 Judging Colour Temperature 2 .Exposure using colour temperature correction.
Colour Temperature I have posted the images of a person.
Daylight gives a realistic view of what I saw. In the sun it is washed out and harsh with strong shadows and a neutral colour.
Daylight in the shade less harsh light, no shadow, slightly cool colour not particularly flattering still.
Daylight with the sun low on the horizon. I like this light it is warm and flattering with the right amount of shadow to give a sense of depth. This I believe is my favourite type of light for skin tone.
Cloudy in the sun. Using the cloudy setting seems to give a warmer tone to the image. In the case of in the sun it does not change the harsh shadows however darkens the skin tone and appears a warmer image.
Cloudy in the shade gives a more natural skin tone than in daylight. It is warmer.
Cloudy in low sunlight. Here this image appears too warm. What was appealing in daylight now looks like a bad version of a fake tan. The image no longer appears natural.
Auto In all three images the Auto setting has slightly warmed the image. It is not destructive and allows an acceptable skin tone or image in all three images. However in the case of in the sun the skin tone is darker with shadows and is not a pleasant image. In the shade the image still appears cold with a slight warming of the skin tone and in the case of low sun the image is warm and pleasant it has removed some of the colour adding by taking an image this time of day which I particularly liked when taken with the daylight setting.
For my own curiosity I have taken pictures of grass and of a handbag to see the difference of colour on these items. As the handbag is a similar colour I found similar findings that Daylight in sun was my preferred setting as it is warm however cloudy in low sun was acceptable more so than with the skin tone. I found the auto in overcast to be particularly too cold as with the cloudy in shade colder than I noticed with the skin tone. However when it came to the grass the differences were much more noticeable. Green being a cooler colour in daylight for example the shade appeared very cold almost unnatural and the low sun in daylight appeared too yellow this is probably a correct reflection of the light however in an image could appear unnatural to an observer. Auto in shade and sun appeared the most natural green to me not too warm or too cold. The cloudy in shade and the cloudy in sun appeared to yellow and unnatural.
For this exercise the objective is to take a look at the lighting difference from sunrise to sunset. The aim is to take a picture every hour at least to show the suns movement, light temperature and shadows perhaps.
I have chosen a location not too far away so I can keep going back sunrise is 7.15 and sun set is 5.15. The first images are just before seven and the last at 5.30.
Initially sun rise as we are facing north the sun rises to the right of the image from behind a small hill. I have tried to show this is the shot. The first images are dark with a red yellow hint on the horizon. At different times of the year we would see some of the house lights switch on as people start to rise. We can see the clouds reflected in the water. As the day gets brighter we see the blue skies and harsh light. There were clouds on this day when there is cloud cover we can see more detail in the pavement to the left of the image. When it is bright near midday with no cloud we lose the detail of this pavement. Unfortunately there was no beautiful light neither as sunrise or sunset which in the past particularly in the summer with changes from north winds to south can be beautiful colours however being winter and with cloud cover the light is soft allowing nice images even in the midday sun. If this were summer I believe we would just see haze and harsh light which would not be flattering at midday. If I expose for the water and sky the pavement is underexposed. In the 11 am shot I exposed for the pavement which allowed us to see the shadows cast to the left of the ropes etc as the light was coming still from the right and there was not too much cloud cover to inhibit this.
Here I have added two images taken at the same spot with a slightly different perspective which show different values of light. They were taken in the summer and the sun set offered beautiful colours note also the shadow on the hills behind.
Book Light Science and Magic preparation for assignment 4.
Light art of photography working towards
Photographers with great use of light.
Photographer Gail Albert Halaban
Exercise variety with a low sun.
The aim of this exercise is to produce four images showing the following.
Frontal light – this is light which comes from behind the camera and strikes the subject directly. The results should appear intense and any shiny parts of the subject will reflect the sun. I note also to be careful not to throw any of my own shadows into the image. This image of the bull in New York shows the reflections of the light shining directly on it. It was a sunny winter day about two hours before sunset. The sun was still quite bright at this time. The image however can appear a little flat and one dimensional. This image almost looks like the bull was superimposed. There is reasonable detail and texture.
The next step to demonstrate side lighting. With the sun to the left or the right more or less half the subject will be lit and half in shadow. It is important to expose for both the shaded and lit part of the image.
Back Lighting, shooting towards the light. Depending on weather the sun is in view or hidden behind the subject. The exposure may be difficult to predict bracketing is advised. This one I found quite difficult as each image I shot showed rim lighting or had too much glare etc. Back lighting can create two effects that I can see one is a silhouette and the other can be to illuminate in the case of flowers or foliage and can be quite pretty. I have tried to show both of these. This light has managed to show texture and colour in the shadows and the glistening metallic side in the part lit up. It gives a good overall image and is much more three dimensional. The image below shows how back lighting has created a silhouette of the person and we can see very little detail of his features. Admittedly we still have a tiny amount of side lighting which we can see on his shoulder and leg. The backlighting is also evident with the water which is illuminated and allows us to see right through it.
This is a special way of shooting towards the sun and with the sun out of the viewfinder so as to light up the edges of the subject. By lighting up the edges of the bulls face it gives emphasis to its shape.
Book Light Science and Magic preparation for assignment 4.
Light art of photography working towards
Photographers with great use of light.
Photographer Gail Albert Halaban